Scientific References: Colostrum
Adams GR, Haddad F. “The relationships among IGF-1, DNA content, and protein accumulation during skeletal muscle hypertrophy,” J Appl Physiol , 1996; 81:2509-2516.
Antonio, J, Sanders, MS, and Darin, VG, “The effects of bovine colostrum supplementation on body composition and exercise performance in active men and women,” Nutrition, 2001, 243-247.
Appukutty, et al., “Modulation of interferon gamma response through orally administered bovine colostrum in active adolescent boys,” Biomedical Research, 2011, 18-22.
Bolster, DR, et al., “Regulation of protein synthesis associated with skeletal muscle hypertrophy by insulin-like growth factors, amino acid- and exercise-induced signaling,” Proc Nutr Soc , 2004; 63:351-356.
Brinkworth, GD, et al., “Concentrated bovine colostrum protein supplementation reduces the incidence of self-reported symptoms of upper respiratory tract infection in adult males,” European Journal of Nutrition, 2003, 228-232.
Brinkworth, GD, et al., “Oral bovine colostrum supplementation enhances buffer capacity but not rowing performance in elite female rowers,” International Journal of Sport Nutrition and Exercise Metabolism, 2002, 349-365.
Brinkworth, GD, et al., “Effect of bovine colostrum supplementation on the composition of resistance trained and untrained limbs in health young men,” European Journal Applied Physiology, 2004, 53-60.
Buckley, JD, et al., “Bovine colostrum supplementation during endurance running training improves recovery, but not performance,” Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport, 2002, 65-79.
Buckley, JD, Brinkworth, GD, and Abbott, MJ, “Effect of bovine colostrum on anaerobic exercise performance and plasma insulin-like growth factor 1,” Journal of Sports Sciences , 2003, 577-588.
Christiansen, Scott, et al., “Chemical composition and nutrient profile of low molecular weight fraction of bovine colostrums,” Int Dairy Journal, 2010, September 20.8.630-636.
Coombes, JS, et al., “Dose effects of oral bovine colostrum on physical work capacity in cyclists,” Medicine and Science in Sports & Exercise, 2002, 1184-1188.
Crooks, CV, et al., “The effect of bovine colostrum supplementation on salivary IgA in distance runners,” Int J Sport Nutr Exerc Metab , 2004, 47-64.
Crooks, C, et al., “Effect of bovine colostrum supplementation on respiratory tract mucosal defenses in swimmers,” International Journal of Sport Nutrition and Exercise Metabolism, 2010, 224-235.
Davison, G, et al., “Bovine colostrum supplementation attenuates the decrease of salivary lysozyme and enhances the recovery of neutrophil function after prolonged exercise,” British Journal of Nutrition, 2010, 1425-1432.
Doillon, Charles J, et al., “Modulatory effect of a complex fraction derived from colostrums on fibroblast contractibility and consequence on repair tissue,” Int Wound Journal, 2011: 8:280-290.
Fryburg, DA, et al., “Insulin and insulin-like growth factor-I enhance human skeletal muscle protein anabolism during hyperaminoacidemia by different mechanisms,” J Clin Invest, 1995; 96:1722-1729.
Gostelli-Peter, M, et al., “Expression and regulation of insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) and IGF binding protein messenger ribonucleic acid levels in tissues of hypophysectomized rats infused with IGF-I and growth hormone,” Endocrinology , 1994; 135:2558-2567.
Hofman, Z, et al., “The effect of bovine colostrum supplementation on exercise performance in elite field hockey players,” Int J Sport Nutri Exerc Metab , 2002, 461-469.
Kerksick, CM, et al., “Impact of differing protein sources and a creatine containing nutritional formula after 12 weeks of resistance training,” Nutrition , 2007, 647-656.
Kerksick, CM, et al., “Effects of bovine colostrum supplementation on training adaptations II: performance,” 85th Annual Experimental Biology, 2001 (p. 15:LB58). Orlando, Fl: FASEB J.
Kreider, R, et al., “Effects of bovine colostrum supplementation on training adaptations I: body composition,” 85th Annual Experimental Biology, 2001 (p. 15:LB58). Orlando, FL: FASEB J.
Le Roith D, et al., “The somatomedin hypothesis: 2001,” Endocr Rev, 2001;22:53-74.
Liu, JP, Baker J, et al., “Mice carrying null mutations of the genes encoding insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-1) and type 1 IGF receptor (IGF1R) Cell,” 1993;75:59-72.
Marshall-Gradisnik, SM, et al., “Psychological improvements in healthy males after eight weeks of concentrated bovine colostrum supplementation,” 2003 Foods for Life Conference, Incorporating International Dairy Federation (p. 197), 2003, Melbourne: Australian Journal of Dairy Technology.
Mauras, N, et al., “Are the metabolic effects of GH and IGF-I separable,” Growth Horm IGF Res, 2005; 15:19-27.
Mero, A, et al., “IGF-I, IgA, and IgG responses to bovine colostrum supplementation during training,” J Appl Physiol, 2003, 732-739.
Mero, A, et al., “Effects of bovine colostrum supplementation on serum IGF-1, IgG, hormone, and saliva IgA during training,” J Appl Physiol, 1997, 1144-1151.
Mero, A., et al., “Protein metabolism and strength performance after bovine colostrum supplementation,” Amino Acids, 2005, 327-335.
Nissen, Asger, et al., “In-depth analysis of low abundant proteins in bovine colostrums using different fraction techniques,” Proteomics 2012; 12, 2866-2878.
O’Leary, L, et al., “Assessment of anaerobic performance in healthy males after an eight week concentrated bovine colostrum supplementation,” Australian Conference of Science and Medicine in Sport and Third National Sports Injury Prevention Conference (p. 38), 2003, Dicson: Australia.
Playford, R., Study 1: “Effect of colostral preparations on cell proliferation.” Study 2: “Effect of colostral preparations on cell migration.” Non-published. Hammersmith Hospital. London, UK.
Rennie, MJ, “Claims for the anabolic effects of growth hormone: a case of the emperor’s new clothes,” Br J Sports Med, 2003; 37:100-105.
Shing, CM, et al., “The influence of bovine colostrum supplementation on exercise performance in highly trained cyclists,” British Journal Sports Medicine, 2006, 797-801.
Shing, CM, et al., “Effects of bovine colostrum supplementation on immune variables in highly trained cyclists,” Journal of Applied Physiology, 2007, 1113-1122.
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Walenkamp, MJ, et al., “Genetic disorders in the GH IGF-I axis in mouse and man,” Eur J Endocrinol, 2007; 157:S15-S26.
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Scientific References: BCAAs
Whitney, E., Rolfes, S. Supplements as Ergogenic Aids. Understanding Nutrition. 2005.
Ohtani M, Sugita M, Maruyama K. Amino acid mixture improves training efficiency in athletes. J Nutr. 2006 Feb; 136(2): 538S-543S.
Sugita M, Ohtani M, Ishii N, Maruyama K, Kobayashi K. Effect of a selected amino acid mixture on the recovery from muscle fatigue during and after eccentric contraction exercise training. Biosci Biotechnol Biochem. 2003 Feb;67(2):372-5.
Ohtani M, Maruyama K, Suzuki S, Sugita M, Kobayashi K. Changes in hematological parameters of athletes after receiving daily dose of a mixture of 12 amino acids for one month during the middle- and long-distance running training. Biosci Biotechnol Biochem. 2001 Feb; 65(2): 348-55.
Kraemer WJ, Ratamess NA, Volek JS, Hakkinen K, Rubin MR, French DN, Gomez AL, McGuigan MR, Scheett TP, Newton RU, Spiering BA, Izquierdo M, Dioguardi FS. The effects of amino acid supplementation on hormonal responses to resistance training overreaching. Metabolism. 2006 Mar; 55(3): 282-91.
Poon RT, Yu WC, Fan ST, Wong J. Long-term oral branched chain amino acids in patients undergoing chemoembolization for hepatocellular carcinoma: a randomized trial. Aliment Pharmacol Ther. Apr2004; 19(7): 779-88.
Plaitakis A, et al. Pilot Trial of Branched-chain Amino acids in Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis. Lancet. May 1988; 1(8593): 1015-18.
Sax HC, et al. Clinical Use of Branched-chain Amino Acids in Liver Disease, Sepsis, Trauma, and Burns. Arch Surg. March 1986; 121(3): 358-66.
Braverman ER. The Healing Nutrients Within. New Canaan, CT: Keats Publishing, Inc. 1997; 339.
NHIondemand.com. Branched Chain Amino Acids. Pharmasave Library. 2006.
Kern, Mark. Branched Chain Amino Acids (BCAA). CRC Desk Reference of Sports Nutrition, San Diego State University. 20-21. 2005.
Coombes JS, McNaughton LR. Effects of branched-chain amino acid supplementation on serum creatine kinase and lactate dehydrogenase after prolonged exercise. J Sports Med Phys Fitness. 2000 Sep; 40(03): 240-6.
Mero A. Leucine supplementation and intensive training. Sports Med. 1999 Jun; 27(6): 347-58.